суббота, 16 июля 2011 г.

Video: The tests 2009 of a quantum pulsed engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass

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В 2014 году были проведены испытаний модифицированного аппарата с вертикальным взлетом. Тяга квантового двигателя была увеличена в 10 раз. Если на видео 2009 года сила тяги в импульсе составила 50 кгс при массе аппарата 50 кг, то в 2014 году сила тяги в импульсе составила 500…700 кгс при массе аппарата 54 кг. Аппарат стартовал вертикально, причем давление на землю в момент старта зафиксировано не было. Рабочие органы квантового двигателя создают тягу, отталкиваясь от квантованного пространства-времени. Видео испытаний 2014 года в интернете мною не выкладывалось ввиду патентования устройства.

Читайте:
Россия успешно испытала антигравитационный двигатель Леонова
Russia successfully tested antigravity engine by Leonov

Vladimir Leonov

The universe: Boiling ‘bouillon’ of quantons


From the book: Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. 
Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 9-54 
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Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

From the book: Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. 
Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 248-251.
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TEXT PDF Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

вторник, 24 мая 2011 г.

Results of the tests of a quantum engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass



From the book Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification.  Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 694-689.



10.9.1. Results of the tests of a quantum engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass

Up to now, the reactive method was the only method of producing thrust in vacuum. It is based on the ejection from the nozzle of reactive mass during the combustion of fuel in the jet engine. It is considered that the gas pressure during the combustion of fuel acts on the internal walls of the jet engine and produces thrust. The thrust momentum is proportional to the speed and mass of the fuel ejected from the nozzle.

Numerous attempts have been made to produce thrust without the ejection of reactive mass. These were purely empirical attempts within the framework of the existing knowledge. Without having clear theoretical substantiation, it was impossible to create such an engine. The point is that in accordance with the third Newton’s law, when effective force is equal to the counteracting force, thrust is created with repulsion from another mass or body. The wheels of an automobile are repulsed from the road surface. In the jet engine, the thrust is created as a result the ejection of reactive mass, as if being repulsed from this mass. Air and hydraulic screws, screwing into the air and hydraulic medium, reject the mass of this medium, being repulsed from it.

But is it possible to be repulsed from vacuum? The theory of Superunification asserts this is possible by considering space vacuum as the elastic quantised medium (quantised space-time) from which it is possible to be repulsed. This is the unique weightless medium which has not analogs in nature and whose structure is described for the first time in the theory of Superunification. It is shown that the weightless quantised space-time penetrates through all ponderable bodies. In this case, all ponderable bodies are the composite and indissoluble part of the weightless quantised space-time. The mass of a body is formed as a result of the spherical deformation (bending according to Einstein) of the weightless quantised space-time by elementary particles which form part of the body. In this case the mass of the body is the component part of the elastic quantised medium, its energy cluster. Mass, as a gravitational charge, is a secondary formation in the quantised space-time.
 
All known methods of producing thrust are based on the external action with the repulsion from the known media. In this case all known apparatuses for the thrust generation must be treated as closed quantum-mechanical systems. In accordance with the theory of Superunification, the quantum engine is an open quantum-mechanical system when thrust is created inside the body of the operating unit (activator) of the quantum engine. To create thrust without the ejection of reactive mass it is necessary to switch over to the open quantum-mechanical systems, treating quantised space-time as an elastic quantised medium. Consequently, it is possible “to push away” from such an elastic quantised medium thus generating thrust. In this case, there are no contradictions with third Newton’s law, whose fundamentality is thoroughly checked, and is completely confirmed by the theory of Superunification. The reader should refer to the section 3.5.3. Simple quantum-mechanical effects, and also to patent [9].

The very process of creating the thrust inside the operating unit of the quantum engine is connected with Einstein’s ‘bending’ of the quantised space-time. Based on the positions of the theory of Superunification, the Einstein distortion effect of space-time looks like the real deformation of the elastic quantised medium inside the operating unit of the quantum engine [9]. This deformation produces the redistribution of the quantum density of the medium inside the body of the operating unit of the quantum engine. This leads to the appearance of gradient thrust forces inside the operating unit. Thus, for the first time gravity and inertia are controlled. This again confirms the fundamentality of Einstein’s theory that against the basis of gravity is the bending of the quantised space-time.

It is natural that the control of gravity on the global scale is not possible at the moment. The perturbing mass of the Earth is required to obtain the strength of the gravitational field of 1g (acceleration in the terrestrial gravitational field) in pure vacuum. This deformation of the outer space free from the external source is is associated with colossal power consumption.

But here the deformation of the quantised space-time in the local region inside the operating unit (activator) of the quantum engine already corresponds to energy which is spent by the body on its acceleration. In this case the classical law of energy conservation. Deformation of vacuum takes place in the body of the operating unit of the quantum engine which actively interacts with the vacuum medium which penetrates the body. The internal thrust force appears inside the body of the operating unit. This is not external repulsion as in the jet engine, it is internal repulsion. Therefore, without having new knowledge, it was not possible in the pas to analytically predict such processes and effects.

But the theory of Superunification goes further and differs from the classical theory by the fact that it is the very strongly developed quantum theory which operates with the already superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) as the basic, previously unknown energy source in the universe. For comparison, the classical theory forbids motion without the ejection of reactive mass, whilst the theory of Superunification permits this motion. It is gratifying that during motion with acceleration regimes form inside the quantised space-time in which deceleration is observed during energy regeneration. With recuperation the spent energy returns and can be used for the second time. Such regimes are used in the hybrid circuits of automobiles with electric transmission. The kinetic energy of a moving automobile with its braking is restored and returns to the energy accumulator – the storage battery. With the acceleration of the automobile the stored energy is used for the second time. In this case, the fuel consumption in the regimes of frequent acceleration and braking is sharply reduced. Inertia possesses a remarkable property - capability for regeneration.

Inertia regimes with regeneration are used actively in the quantum engine. The capability of the quantum engines for energy regeneration during thrust ensures the most economical power cycles of the quantum engine. It is necessary to compensate the energy losses due to friction in the mechanisms of the engine and ohmic losses in the electrical wires and the windings of the activators. In comparison with the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) and the jet engine, the efficiency of the quantum engine for the generation of thrust can exceed that of the traditional engines 20 or more times. Let us compare the regimes of motion of an expedition to Mars along the ballistic trajectory as far as the inertia and the trajectories of motion in the regime of acceleration - braking with regeneration are concerned. In both cases, the path integral which determines power consumption for motion, excluding losses, is equal to zero. However, in the case of motion the acceleration-braking regime, using a quantum engine, we repeatedly gain in the duration of the expedition, completely compensating weightlessness [9]. In this case, the quantum engine works in the regime of constant conversion and energy exchange of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI).

It would seem that the patent [9] describes in a simple manner the construction of the operating units (activators) of the quantum engine and the principle of its operation. But this is done only theoretically. The patent does not stipulated the modes of powering the operating units and the materials from which they are made. Even the author of this development had to face serious problems in creating the quantum engine and determining the thrust regime during operation of the engine. Two years of intense work were required for this. It was encouraging that immediately it was possible to generate a small thrust of 0.1 N, and this thrust was then further increased.

In two years (2007-2009) of experimental work it was possible to increase the thrust from 0.1 N to 500 N with the mass of apparatus being 50 kg together with the chassis. The diameter of the apparatus of was 1.5 m, the height 1.05 m together with the chassis (photo). It can be concluded that the earth’s gravity was overcome with the aid of the quantum engine. Outwardly the apparatus resembles a small flying saucer (or saucepan), but this does not mean that the apparatus must have the form of a ‘plate’. It can be any form. Unusual even for the author was to observe the motion of the apparatus which has no screws, jet nozzle and drive for the wheels. High stability is typical of the work of the quantum engine. The effect of generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass during the operation of the quantum engine did not disappear even after 6 months in repeated tests. This fundamental effect is always well reproduced. An apparatus with the thrust of 5000 N weighing 100 kg is being prepared for tests. If everything goes without problems, then its flights will be demonstrated at the Moscow Aerospace Salon (MAKS) at Zhukovskiy in the Moscow region. The results of tests and design features of the quantum engine, the procedure for calculation of operating units for the given thrust and the operating modes, will be examined in the second volume of Quantum Energetics.

In principle, there are no special limitations on the thrust of quantum engines. A procedure has been developed for calculation of the design parameters of the quantum engine for any thrusts, including 100 tons (1000 N), 1000 tons (10000 N) and more. High efficiency is the distinctive special feature of the quantum engines since the quantum engines do not use the uneconomical thermodynamic cycles. They use exchange cycles inside the energy-consuming quantised space-time. The construction of interplanetary spacecraft of the new generation with the complete compensation for weightlessness becomes reality. The organization of an international expedition to Mars with the participation of the European Union, USA and Russia and other countries will become possible.

It should be noted that the quantum engine is a relatively complex construction with the complex electronic control system. It is an expensive apparatus and its repeated construction can be ensured only by powerful organizations with the participation of specialists in the region of the theory of Superunification. However, no specialists are being trained in this area at the moment. It is hoped that when this book is published, its content will be accepted the university courses of physics and power engineering, giving new knowledge to future specialists.

On the other hand, the efficiency of the quantum engine is the thorough experimental verification of the theory of Superunification which predicted similar effects and they have been confirmed experimentally. Most importantly, the efficiency of the quantum engine proves that the vacuum has a structure in the form of quantised space-time with which it is possible actively to interact. Prior to starting the series production of quantum engines, it would be desirable for independent laboratories to study of the processes of the interaction of the simplest operating units with the quantised space-time, investigating its elastic properties. This is new knowledge which will have to be acquired. A simple and inexpensive instrument, which can be repeated in any university laboratory, has be constructed and is proposed for repetition below, or it can be ordered from us.

9. Leonov V.S. Russian Federation patent No. 2185526. A method of generation of thrust in vacuum and a field engine for a spaceship (variants), Bull. 20, 2002.

Video: The tests 2009 of a quantum pulsed engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass 

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Дополнено Леоновым 07.07.15
В 2014 году были проведены испытаний модифицированного аппарата с вертикальным взлетом. Тяга квантового двигателя была увеличена в 10 раз. Если на видео 2009 года сила тяги в импульсе составила 50 кгс при массе аппарата 50 кг, то в 2014 году сила тяги в импульсе составила 500…700 кгс при массе аппарата 54 кг. Аппарат стартовал вертикально, причем давление на землю в момент старта зафиксировано не было. Рабочие органы квантового двигателя создают тягу, отталкиваясь от квантованного пространства-времени. Видео испытаний 2014 года в интернете мною не выкладывалось ввиду патентования устройства.

Читайте:
Россия успешно испытала антигравитационный двигатель Леонова
Russia successfully tested antigravity engine by Leonov

вторник, 19 апреля 2011 г.

Theory of Superunification. Contents


Theory  of  Superunification

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of  Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages

2. V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics : Theory of Superunification.
Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 p.
 

Quantum energetics is based on new fundamental discoveries of quantum of space-time (quanton) and super-strong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) made by Vladimir Leonov in 1996. On the basis of new fundamental discoveries the theory of Superunification of fundamental interactions of electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electro-weak forces is completed. It is important that new fundamental discoveries have the widest practical application in the development of quantum energetics. It is discovered that the single source of energy in the Universe is the quanton in the structure of quantized space-time, which is the carrier of super-strong interaction (SEI). All known methods of energy generation (chemical and nuclear reactionsm etc.) are redued to the release and transformation of SEI energy. Quantum energetics is a more general concept in energetics, which includes both the new energetic cycles, and traditional ones, including nuclear energetics.

Contents
Preface

1 Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction

1.2 Main problems on the road to Superunification theory
1.2.1 Problem of energy levels
1.2.2 Problem of motion
1.2.3 Problem of mass
1.2.4 Problem of relativity

1.3 The universe: Boiling `bouillon' of quantons
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 `Bouillon' from quantons
1.3.3 How to weld elementary particles
1.3.4 Return to the light-bearing (luminiferous) medium
1.3.5 Gravity. Inertia. Black holes
1.3.6 Antigravitation. Minus mass. White holes
1.3.7 Problem of time. Chronal fields
1.3.8 Who lights up stars?
1.3.9 Superstrings
1.3.10 Main problems of modern physics
1.3.11 Problems of inflationary theory

1.4 The Einstein posthumous phrase
1.5 Conclusion to chapter 1

2 Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time
2.2.1 Basis of the theory of EQM and Superunification
2.2.2 Unification of electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Structure of the quanton
2.2.3 The charge of the Dirac monopole
2.2.4 Dimensions of the quanton
2.2.5 Symmetry of electricity and magnetism inside a quanton
2.2.6 The structure of the monopole-quark
2.2.7 Electromagnetic quantisation of space
2.2.8 Electrical symmetry of space
2.2.9 The speed of movement of the space clock
2.2.10 Stability and energy capacity of the quanton

2.3 Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time
2.3.1 The state of electromagnetic equilibrium of quantised space-time
2.3.2 Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium in statics
2.3.3 Disruption of electromagnetic equilibrium in dynamics. Maxwell equations
2.3.4 Displacement of the charges in the quanton and bias currents
2.3.5 Displacement of the charges in the quanton in statics
2.3.6 Polarisation energy of the quanton
2.3.7 Nature of electromagnetic oscillations in vacuum
2.3.8 Quantisation of the electromagnetic wave
2.3.9 Circulation of electrical and magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetic wave
2.3.10 Transfer of energy by the quanton in the electromagnetic wave

2.4 Electromagnetic tensioning of vacuum. Strings and superstrings
2.4.1 Elastic quantised medium (EQM)
2.4.2 Tensioning of the electromagnetic  superstring
2.5.3 Tension tensor in vacuum
2.5 Conclusions for chapter 2

3 Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation Antigravitation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium
3.2.1 Return to the luminiferous medium
3.2.2 Optical media. Fizeau experiment
3.3 Fundamentals of gravitation theory
3.3.1 Two-component solution of Poisson  equation
3.3.2 Deformation vector D
3.3.3 Equivalence of energy and mass
3.3.4 Gravitational diagram
3.3.5 Black hole
3.3.6 Additional gravitational potentials
3.3.7 Newton gravitational law

3.4 Reasons for relativism
3.4.1 Relativistic factor
3.4.2 The normalised relativistic factor
3.4.3 Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials
3.4.4 Limiting parameters of relativistic particles
3.4.5 Hidden mass. Mass balance
3.4.6 Hidden energy. Energy balance
3.4.7 Dynamic Poisson equations
3.4.8 Dynamic curvature of space-time
3.4.9 The speed of light
3.5 Nature of gravity and inertia
3.5.1 Formation of mass
3.5.2 Reasons for gravity and inertia
3.5.3 Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6 The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points
3.6.1 Energy balance
3.6.2 Absolute speed
3.6.3 Energy paradox of motion dynamics
3.6.4 Resistance to movement in vacuum
3.6.5 Dynamics equations
3.6.6 Bifurcation points
3.6.7 Complex speed
3.6.8 Relativistic momentum

3.7 Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves
3.8 Time problems. Chronal waves
3.9 Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
3.10 Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)
Conclusions for chapter 3
References

4 The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Classic electron radius
4.3 Gravitational boundary of the electron
4.4 Electrical radius of the electron
4.5 Hidden energy and electron mass
4.6 Many relationships of electron parameters
4.7 Gravitational diagram and electron  zones
4.8 The gravitational attraction zone
4.9 Equivalence of gravitational and electromagnetic energies
4.10 Tensioning of the medium by the  electron
4.11 Gravitational well of the electron
4.12 The zone of antigravitational repulsion
4.13 The zone of the minus mass of the electron
4.14 Annihilation of the electron and the positron
4.15 The effect of electrical force on the quanton in the electron
4.16 Effect of the spherical magnetic field of the quanton. Electron spin
4.17 Electron energy balance
4.18 Tunnelling of the charge and wave transfer of electron mass
4.19 Conclusions
References

5 Quantised structure of nucleons. The  nature of nuclear forces
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Problem of the nucleon mass
5.3 Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon
5.4 Shell models of the proton
5.5 Shell models of the neutron
5.6 Structure of nucleon shells
5.7 Prospects for splitting the nucleon into elementary components
5.8 Electrical natue of nuclear forces
5.9 Analytical calculation of nuclear forces
5.10 Electrical energy of nuclear forces
5.11 Electrical potential of nuclear forces
5.12 Calculation of neutron interaction
5.13 Proton-proton interaction
5.14 Nuclear forces in quantum mechanics
5.15 The zones of antigravitational repulsion in the nucleon shells
Conclusions
References

6 Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Electromagnetic nature of the photon  and rotor models
6.3 Electromagnetic trace of the photon in the quantised medium
6.4 The wave equation of the photon
6.5 Total two-rotor structure of the photon
6.6 Reasons for the deceleration of light in the optical medium
6.7 Probable capture of atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium by a photon
6.8 Vector diagram of the complex speed of the photon in the optical medium
6.9 Wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium
6.10 Forces acting on the photon in the optical medium
6.11 Refractive index of the optical medium
Conclusions
References

7 Nature of non-radiation and radiation of the orbital electron
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Concept of the discrete quantised electron
7.3 Special features of the structure of the proton, neutron and the atomic nucleus
7.4 Reasons for the non-radiation of the orbital electron
7.5 Reasons for proton radiation of the orbital electron
7.6 The role of superstrong interaction in photon radiation
7.7 Gravitational radiation of the atom
7.8 Probability electronic cloud
7.9 Conclusions
References

8 Thermal photons. Molecule recoil in photon emission
8.1 Energy paradox in atom recoil
8.2 Classic approach to calculating the atom recoil
8.3 Method of calculating atom (molecule) recoil in photon emission
8.4 Energy balance of the atom in photon emission
8.5 Nature of thermal oscillations
8.6 High temperature superconductivity
8.7 Leonov's task
References

9 Gravitational waves. Wave equations
9.1 Introduction
9.2 State of the space-time theory
9.3 Main static equations of the deformed quantised space-time
9.4 The balance of gravitational potentials in quantised space-time
9.5 Limiting mass and energy of relativistic particles
9.6 Fundamentals of the physics of black holes
9.7 Deformation vector of quantised space-time
9.8 Derivation of the equation for the speed of light
9.9 Distribution of time in space in the form of a chronal field
9.10 Antimatter and ideal gravitational oscillator
9.11 Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time
9.12 Derivation of the Maxwell equations and electromagnetic waves
9.13 Equivalence of electromagnetic and gravitational energies
9.14 Electron structure
9.15 Gravitational waves in quantised space-time
9.16 Report by V. Leonov on the generation of a gravitational wave
9.17 Conclusions

10 Superstrong electromagnetic interaction and prospects for the development of quantum energetics in the 21st century
10.1 World economy and scientific and technical revolutions
10.2 Scientific errors and new energy concepts
10.3 Dependence of the efficiency of the cycle on the energy yield of fuel
10.4 Quantum thermal energetics. Usherenko effect
10.5 Quantum reactors
10.6 Cavitation heating
10.7 Quantum engines. The Searl effect
10.8 Practical application of quantum engines
10.8.1 New generation automobiles
10.8.2 Spaceships and aircraft
10.8.3 Quantum engines-generators
10.9 Forecast of the development of quantum power engineering in 21st century
10.9.1 Results of the tests of a quantum engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass
10.9.2 Simple instrument for studying the elastic properties of quantised space-time
10.9.3 What will the launching of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN yield?
10.9.4 Priority of Usherenko (1974) in the region of cold synthesis
10.9.5 Leonov's forecast for 100 years
References
Conclusion for volume 1
Index