**Theory of Superunification**

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages

2. V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics : Theory of Superunification.

Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 p.

2. V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics : Theory of Superunification.

Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 p.

Quantum energetics is based on new fundamental discoveries of quantum of space-time (quanton) and super-strong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) made by Vladimir Leonov in 1996. On the basis of new fundamental discoveries the theory of Superunification of fundamental interactions of electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electro-weak forces is completed. It is important that new fundamental discoveries have the widest practical application in the development of quantum energetics. It is discovered that the single source of energy in the Universe is the quanton in the structure of quantized space-time, which is the carrier of super-strong interaction (SEI). All known methods of energy generation (chemical and nuclear reactionsm etc.) are redued to the release and transformation of SEI energy. Quantum energetics is a more general concept in energetics, which includes both the new energetic cycles, and traditional ones, including nuclear energetics.

Contents

Preface

1 Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction

1.2 Main problems on the road to Superunification theory

1.2.1 Problem of energy levels

1.2.2 Problem of motion

1.2.3 Problem of mass

1.2.4 Problem of relativity

1.3 The universe: Boiling `bouillon' of quantons

1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 `Bouillon' from quantons

1.3.3 How to weld elementary particles

1.3.4 Return to the light-bearing (luminiferous) medium

1.3.5 Gravity. Inertia. Black holes

1.3.6 Antigravitation. Minus mass. White holes

1.3.7 Problem of time. Chronal fields

1.3.8 Who lights up stars?

1.3.9 Superstrings

1.3.10 Main problems of modern physics

1.3.11 Problems of inflationary theory

1.4 The Einstein posthumous phrase

1.5 Conclusion to chapter 1

2 Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time

2.2.1 Basis of the theory of EQM and Superunification

2.2.2 Unification of electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Structure of the quanton

2.2.3 The charge of the Dirac monopole

2.2.4 Dimensions of the quanton

2.2.5 Symmetry of electricity and magnetism inside a quanton

2.2.6 The structure of the monopole-quark

2.2.7 Electromagnetic quantisation of space

2.2.8 Electrical symmetry of space

2.2.9 The speed of movement of the space clock

2.2.10 Stability and energy capacity of the quanton

2.3 Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time

2.3.1 The state of electromagnetic equilibrium of quantised space-time

2.3.2 Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium in statics

2.3.3 Disruption of electromagnetic equilibrium in dynamics. Maxwell equations

2.3.4 Displacement of the charges in the quanton and bias currents

2.3.5 Displacement of the charges in the quanton in statics

2.3.6 Polarisation energy of the quanton

2.3.7 Nature of electromagnetic oscillations in vacuum

2.3.8 Quantisation of the electromagnetic wave

2.3.9 Circulation of electrical and magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetic wave

2.3.10 Transfer of energy by the quanton in the electromagnetic wave

2.4 Electromagnetic tensioning of vacuum. Strings and superstrings

2.4.1 Elastic quantised medium (EQM)

2.4.2 Tensioning of the electromagnetic superstring

2.5.3 Tension tensor in vacuum

2.5 Conclusions for chapter 2

3 Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation Antigravitation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium

3.2.1 Return to the luminiferous medium

3.2.2 Optical media. Fizeau experiment

3.3 Fundamentals of gravitation theory

3.3.1 Two-component solution of Poisson equation

3.3.2 Deformation vector D

3.3.3 Equivalence of energy and mass

3.3.4 Gravitational diagram

3.3.5 Black hole

3.3.6 Additional gravitational potentials

3.3.7 Newton gravitational law

3.4 Reasons for relativism

3.4.1 Relativistic factor

3.4.2 The normalised relativistic factor

3.4.3 Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials

3.4.4 Limiting parameters of relativistic particles

3.4.5 Hidden mass. Mass balance

3.4.6 Hidden energy. Energy balance

3.4.7 Dynamic Poisson equations

3.4.8 Dynamic curvature of space-time

3.4.9 The speed of light

3.5 Nature of gravity and inertia

3.5.1 Formation of mass

3.5.2 Reasons for gravity and inertia

3.5.3 Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6 The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points

3.6.1 Energy balance

3.6.2 Absolute speed

3.6.3 Energy paradox of motion dynamics

3.6.4 Resistance to movement in vacuum

3.6.5 Dynamics equations

3.6.6 Bifurcation points

3.6.7 Complex speed

3.6.8 Relativistic momentum

3.7 Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves

3.8 Time problems. Chronal waves

3.9 Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

3.10 Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)

Conclusions for chapter 3

References

4 The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Classic electron radius

4.3 Gravitational boundary of the electron

4.4 Electrical radius of the electron

4.5 Hidden energy and electron mass

4.6 Many relationships of electron parameters

4.7 Gravitational diagram and electron zones

4.8 The gravitational attraction zone

4.9 Equivalence of gravitational and electromagnetic energies

4.10 Tensioning of the medium by the electron

4.11 Gravitational well of the electron

4.12 The zone of antigravitational repulsion

4.13 The zone of the minus mass of the electron

4.14 Annihilation of the electron and the positron

4.15 The effect of electrical force on the quanton in the electron

4.16 Effect of the spherical magnetic field of the quanton. Electron spin

4.17 Electron energy balance

4.18 Tunnelling of the charge and wave transfer of electron mass

4.19 Conclusions

References

5 Quantised structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Problem of the nucleon mass

5.3 Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon

5.4 Shell models of the proton

5.5 Shell models of the neutron

5.6 Structure of nucleon shells

5.7 Prospects for splitting the nucleon into elementary components

5.8 Electrical natue of nuclear forces

5.9 Analytical calculation of nuclear forces

5.10 Electrical energy of nuclear forces

5.11 Electrical potential of nuclear forces

5.12 Calculation of neutron interaction

5.13 Proton-proton interaction

5.14 Nuclear forces in quantum mechanics

5.15 The zones of antigravitational repulsion in the nucleon shells

Conclusions

References

6 Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Electromagnetic nature of the photon and rotor models

6.3 Electromagnetic trace of the photon in the quantised medium

6.4 The wave equation of the photon

6.5 Total two-rotor structure of the photon

6.6 Reasons for the deceleration of light in the optical medium

6.7 Probable capture of atomic centres of the lattice of the optical medium by a photon

6.8 Vector diagram of the complex speed of the photon in the optical medium

6.9 Wave trajectory of the photon in the optical medium

6.10 Forces acting on the photon in the optical medium

6.11 Refractive index of the optical medium

Conclusions

References

7 Nature of non-radiation and radiation of the orbital electron

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Concept of the discrete quantised electron

7.3 Special features of the structure of the proton, neutron and the atomic nucleus

7.4 Reasons for the non-radiation of the orbital electron

7.5 Reasons for proton radiation of the orbital electron

7.6 The role of superstrong interaction in photon radiation

7.7 Gravitational radiation of the atom

7.8 Probability electronic cloud

7.9 Conclusions

References

8 Thermal photons. Molecule recoil in photon emission

8.1 Energy paradox in atom recoil

8.2 Classic approach to calculating the atom recoil

8.3 Method of calculating atom (molecule) recoil in photon emission

8.4 Energy balance of the atom in photon emission

8.5 Nature of thermal oscillations

8.6 High temperature superconductivity

8.7 Leonov's task

References

9 Gravitational waves. Wave equations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 State of the space-time theory

9.3 Main static equations of the deformed quantised space-time

9.4 The balance of gravitational potentials in quantised space-time

9.5 Limiting mass and energy of relativistic particles

9.6 Fundamentals of the physics of black holes

9.7 Deformation vector of quantised space-time

9.8 Derivation of the equation for the speed of light

9.9 Distribution of time in space in the form of a chronal field

9.10 Antimatter and ideal gravitational oscillator

9.11 Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time

9.12 Derivation of the Maxwell equations and electromagnetic waves

9.13 Equivalence of electromagnetic and gravitational energies

9.14 Electron structure

9.15 Gravitational waves in quantised space-time

9.16 Report by V. Leonov on the generation of a gravitational wave

9.17 Conclusions

10 Superstrong electromagnetic interaction and prospects for the development of quantum energetics in the 21st century

10.1 World economy and scientific and technical revolutions

10.2 Scientific errors and new energy concepts

10.3 Dependence of the efficiency of the cycle on the energy yield of fuel

10.4 Quantum thermal energetics. Usherenko effect

10.5 Quantum reactors

10.6 Cavitation heating

10.7 Quantum engines. The Searl effect

10.8 Practical application of quantum engines

10.8.1 New generation automobiles

10.8.2 Spaceships and aircraft

10.8.3 Quantum engines-generators

10.9 Forecast of the development of quantum power engineering in 21st century

10.9.1 Results of the tests of a quantum engine for generating thrust without the ejection of reactive mass

10.9.2 Simple instrument for studying the elastic properties of quantised space-time

10.9.3 What will the launching of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN yield?

10.9.4 Priority of Usherenko (1974) in the region of cold synthesis

10.9.5 Leonov's forecast for 100 years

References

Conclusion for volume 1

Index